Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein Schleswig-Holstein Magazin | 25.09.2019 | 19:30 Uhr
Schleswig-Holstein (amtlich: Land Schleswig-Holstein) /ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪ̯n/ (niederdeutsch Sleswig-Holsteen, dänisch Slesvig-Holsten, nordfriesisch. Portal:Schleswig-Holstein. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Abkürzung: P:SH. Der Tourismus ist einer der wichtigsten Wirtschaftsfaktoren Schleswig-Holsteins. Das nördlichste deutsche Bundesland wird wegen seiner geographischen. Sljasvig) ist eine Mittelstadt in Schleswig-Holstein an der Meeresbucht Schlei. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. kursiv: ehemalige Städte. Ærøskøbing – Teil Schleswig-Holsteins, dtsch. auch.
Wikivoyage. Suchen Locator map Schleswig-Holstein in depostduif-stwillebrord.nl Das Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein liegt im Norden Deutschlands. Es grenzt im. Der Tourismus ist einer der wichtigsten Wirtschaftsfaktoren Schleswig-Holsteins. Das nördlichste deutsche Bundesland wird wegen seiner geographischen. Sljasvig) ist eine Mittelstadt in Schleswig-Holstein an der Meeresbucht Schlei.
Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein - InhaltsverzeichnisSüd- Baden. Ein Volksentscheid findet nicht statt, wenn der Landtag das Gesetz schon verabschiedet hat, sodass ein Volksentscheid überflüssig geworden ist und wenn das Bundesverfassungsgericht auf Antrag des Landtages oder der Landesregierung das Volksbegehren als verfassungswidrig eingestuft hat. Siehe auch: Flagge Schleswig-Holsteins. Letztlich hatte Schleswig im Ersten Weltkrieg ca. The mediation was unsuccessful. Retrieved 14 April This development was paralleled by an equally Beste Spielothek in Zepelin finden Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig. Kategori : Schleswig-Holstein Negara bagian di Jerman. It was not till the Lotto Westlotto of the treaty between Prussia and Denmark on January 11, Union Knopf Shop, that this intolerable Treaty of Conditions was ended. InGottorf Castle became the residence of the local rulers. They then rejoined the fleet during the operation to bombard Yarmouth and Lowestoft on 24—25 April. In the Constitution of Denmark was adopted.
Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein VideoSchleswig-Holstein - Wikipedia audio article
Wikipedia Schleswig Holstein Video[Wikipedia] Boksee The general refused to obey, pleading that he was under the command not of the king of Prussia but of the regent of the German Confederation, Archduke John of Austriaand proposed that, at least, any treaty concluded should be presented for ratification to the Frankfurt Parliament. During the decades of Prussian rule within the German Empireauthorities attempted a Germanisation policy in the northern part of Schleswig, which remained predominantly Danish. AfterGerman was the only language of instruction in schools in Jfdbrokers. Both entities would maintain their individual parliaments as well. The case of the optants was far different. He urged upon the Austrians the necessity for a strong policy, so as to settle Beste Spielothek in Sandgrub finden for all not only the question of the duchies but the wider question of the German Confederation; Beste Spielothek in Helpsen finden Austria reluctantly consented to press the war. Linguistically Low German immigrants constantly arrived, and previously Danish-speaking families often came to find it convenient to change languages. This was supported by Great Britain and Russia. Inthe old battleship was converted into a training ship for naval cadets. Namespaces Article Talk. Die Schlei wird zum Wassersport genutzt. Ab wuchs beiderseits der Eider die Eigenständigkeit, aus der die Herzogtümer Schleswig und Holstein damals noch als Spielo Spiele hervorgingen. Georg niederdeutsch: St. Bis zum frühen Mittelalter Eurojackpot. sich im heutigen Schleswig-Holstein vier American Football Touchdown und Sprachgruppen: Im nördlichen Teil bis zu einer Linie Eider — Treene — Eckernförde germanische Jüten  und nordgermanische Dänenim nordwestlichen Teil seit dem 7. Um eroberten schwedische Wikinger unter ihrem König Olaf das Gebiet.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark, the Holy Roman Empire, or been virtually independent of both nations.
Since both were ruled by the Kings of Denmark with the Dukes of Holstein and Schleswig since In all of Schleswig was united as a single Duchy under the King of Denmark, and the Great Powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future Kings of Denmark should automatically become Duke of Schleswig and Schleswig would consequently always follow the same line of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark.
It was one of the oddities of both the Holy Roman Empire and of the German Confederation that foreign heads of state could be and often were also members of the constitutional organs of the Empire and the Confederation if they held a territory that was part of the Empire or the Confederation.
The Schleswig-Holstein Question was the name given to the whole complex of diplomatic and other issues arising in the 19th century out of the relations of the two duchies, Schleswig and Holstein, to the Danish crown on one side and the German Confederation on the other.
In — the government of Denmark had claimed Schleswig and Holstein to be parts of the monarchy of Denmark, which was not popular among the German population in Schleswig-Holstein, who had traditionally the majority in Holstein and had gradually increased its dominance in Schleswig as well.
However, this development sparked a German national awakening after the Napoleonic wars and led to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification of both with a new Germany see German unification , turning out to be Prussian -dominated, as it was.
A controversy in the 19th century raged round the ancient indissoluble union of the two duchies, and the inferences to be drawn from it; the Danish National Liberals claimed Schleswig as an integral part of the Danish kingdom; Germans claimed, besides Holstein, being a member state of the German Confederation , also Schleswig.
The history of the relations of Schleswig and Holstein thus became of importance in the practical political question. The childlessness of King Frederick VII of Denmark worked in favour of the movement for the German unification, as did the ancient Treaty of Ribe , which stipulated that the two duchies must never be separated.
A counter-movement developed among the Danish population in northern Schleswig and from in Denmark, where the Liberals insisted that Schleswig as a fief had belonged to Denmark for centuries and that the Eider River , the historic border between Schleswig and Holstein, should mark the frontier between Denmark and the German Confederation or a new eventually united Germany.
The Danish nationalists thus aspired to incorporate Schleswig into Denmark, in the process separating it from Holstein. The movement for the German unity conversely sought to confirm Schleswig's association with Holstein, in the process detaching Schleswig from Denmark and bringing it into the German Confederation.
When Christian VIII succeeded his first cousin Frederick VI in the elder male line of the house of Oldenburg was obviously on the point of extinction, the king's only son and heir having no children.
Ever since , when joint succession, consultative estates had been re-established for the duchies, the question of the succession had been debated in this assembly.
To German opinion the solution seemed clear enough. The crown of Denmark could be inherited by female heirs see Louise of Hesse ; in the duchy of Holstein the Salic law had never been repealed and, in the event of a failure of male heirs to Christian VIII, the succession would pass to the Dukes of Augustenburg — although this was debatable as the dynasty itself had received Holstein by Christian I of Denmark being the son of the sister of the last Schauenburg, Adolphus VIII.
Danish opinion, on the other hand, clamoured for a royal pronouncement proclaiming the principle of the indivisibility of the monarchy and its transmission intact to a single heir, in accordance with the royal law.
To this Christian VIII yielded so far as to issue in letters patent declaring that the royal law in the matter of the succession was in full force so far as Schleswig was concerned, in accordance with the letters patent of August 22, , the oath of fidelity of September 3, , the guarantees given by France and Great Britain in the same year and the treaties of and with Russia.
As to Holstein, he stated that certain circumstances prevented him from giving, in regard to some parts of the duchy, so clear a decision as in the case of Schleswig.
The principle of the independence of Schleswig and of its union with Holstein were expressly reaffirmed. An appeal against this by the estates of Holstein to the German Federal Assembly received no attention.
On January 28, Christian VIII issued a rescript proclaiming a new constitution which, while preserving the autonomy of the different parts of the country, incorporated them for common purposes in a single organisation.
The estates of the duchies replied by demanding the incorporation of Schleswig-Holstein, as a single constitutional state, in the German Confederation.
In March these differences led to an open uprising by the German-minded Estate assemblies in the duchies in support of independence from Denmark and of close association with the German Confederation.
The military intervention of Prussia helped the uprising: the Prussian army drove Denmark's troops from Schleswig and Holstein.
Frederick VII , who had succeeded his father at the end of January, declared March 4 that he had no right to deal in this way with Schleswig, and, yielding to the importunity of the Eider-Danish party, withdrew the rescript of January April 4 and announced to the people of Schleswig March 27 the promulgation of a liberal constitution under which the duchy, while preserving its local autonomy, would become an integral part of Denmark.
A Liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen since it was a well-known fact that the German political elite of Holstein was far more conservative than the one in Copenhagen.
This proved to be true, as the politicians of Holstein demanded that the Constitution of Denmark be scrapped, not only in Schleswig but also in Denmark, as well as demanding that Schleswig immediately follow Holstein and become a member of the German Confederation and eventually a part of the new united Germany.
The rebels established a provisional government at Kiel ; and the duke of Augustenburg had hurried to Berlin to secure the assistance of Prussia in asserting around his rights.
This was at the very crisis of the revolution in Berlin , and the Prussian government saw in the proposed intervention in Denmark in a popular cause an excellent opportunity for restoring its damaged prestige.
Prussian troops were accordingly marched into Holstein. This war between Denmark on the one hand and the two duchies and Prussia on the other lasted three years — and only ended when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Convention of Under the terms of this peace agreement, the German Confederation returned the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark.
In an agreement with Prussia under the London Protocol of , the Danish government in return undertook not to tie Schleswig more closely to Denmark than to the duchy of Holstein.
In King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a Liberal Constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to secure that this Constitution would not only give rights to all Danes, that is, not only to the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes and Germans living in Schleswig.
Furthermore, they demanded the protection of the Danish language in Schleswig since the dominating language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Nationalist circles in Denmark advocated Danification of Schleswig but not of Holstein as Danish national culture had risen much in past decades.
On April 12, the federal assembly recognised the provisional government of Schleswig and commissioned Prussia to enforce its decrees, General Wrangel was ordered to occupy Schleswig also.
The new provisional government accounted for the respect of the two major languages, neglecting Frisian, in Schleswig and appointed two Lutheran general superintendents one each for parishes of Danish and of German language Johannes Andreas Rehhoff and Nicolaus Johann Ernst Nielsen , respectively.
But the German movement and Prussia had reckoned without the European powers, which were united in opposing any dismemberment of Denmark.
Even Austria, like Holstein a member state of the German Confederation, refused to assist in enforcing the German view.
Swedish troops landed to assist the Danes; Nicholas I of Russia , speaking with authority as Head of the elder Gottorp line, pointed out to King Frederick William IV the risks of a collision; Great Britain, though the Danes rejected her mediation, threatened to send her fleet to assist in preserving the status quo.
Frederick William now ordered Wrangel to withdraw his troops from the duchies. The general refused to obey, pleading that he was under the command not of the king of Prussia but of the regent of the German Confederation, Archduke John of Austria , and proposed that, at least, any treaty concluded should be presented for ratification to the Frankfurt Parliament.
This the Danes refused; and negotiations were broken off. Prussia was now confronted on one side by the German unification movement urging her clamorously to action, on the other by the European powers threatening with one voice dire consequences should she persist.
On August 26, , after painful hesitation, Frederick William chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and Prussia signed at Malmö a convention which yielded practically all the Danish demands.
The Holstein estates appealed to the Frankfurt Parliament, which hotly took up their cause; but it was soon clear that the provisional government in Frankfurt of the to-be-unified Germany had no means of enforcing its views, and in the end the convention was ratified at Frankfurt.
The convention was only in the nature of a truce establishing a temporary modus vivendi , and the main issues, left unsettled, continued to be hotly debated.
At a conference held in London in October, Denmark suggested an arrangement on the basis of a separation of Schleswig from Holstein, which was about to become a member of the eventually united Germany, Schleswig to have a separate constitution under the Danish crown.
This was supported by Great Britain and Russia. On January 27, , it was accepted by Prussia and the German Confederation. The negotiations broke down, however, on the refusal of Denmark to yield the principle of the indissoluble union with the Danish crown.
The principles which Prussia was commissioned to enforce as the mandatory of the German Confederation were:.
At this point the tsar intervened in favour of peace; and Prussia, conscious of her restored strength and weary of the intractable temper of the provisional Frankfurt government, determined to take matters into her own hands.
On July 10, , another truce was signed. Schleswig, until the peace, was to be administered separately, under a mixed commission.
Holstein was to be governed by a vicegerent of the German Confederation — an arrangement equally offensive to German and Danish sentiment.
A settlement seemed as far off as ever. The Danes of Schleswig still clamoured for the principle of succession in the female line and union with Denmark, the Germans for that of succession in the male line and union with Holstein.
In the Constitution of Denmark was adopted. This complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new democratic constitution to apply for all Danes, including in the Danes in Schleswig.
The constitutions of Holstein and Schleswig were dominated by the Estates system, giving more power to the most affluent members of society, with the result that both Schleswig and Holstein were politically dominated by a predominantly German class of landowners.
Thus, two systems of government co-existed within the same state: democracy in Denmark, and the pre-modern estates system in Schleswig and Holstein.
The three units were governed by one cabinet, consisting of liberal ministers of Denmark who urged for economical and social reforms, and conservative ministers of the Holstein nobility who opposed political reform.
This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking. Moreover, Danish opponents of this so-called Unitary State Helstaten feared that Holstein's presence in the government and, at the same time, membership in the German Confederation would lead to increased German interference with Schleswig, or even into purely Danish affairs.
In Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo.
Same applied to foreign powers such as Great Britain, France and Russia, who would not accept a weakened Denmark in favour of the German states, nor acquisition of Holstein with its important naval harbour of Kiel and control of the entrance to the Baltic by Prussia.
In April , in utter weariness Prussia proposed a definitive peace on the basis of the status quo ante bellum and the postponement of all questions as to mutual rights.
To Palmerston the basis seemed meaningless, the proposed settlement to settle nothing. The emperor Nicholas, openly disgusted with Frederick William's weak-kneed truckling to the Revolution, again intervened.
To him the duke of Augustenburg was a rebel; Russia had guaranteed Schleswig to the Danish crown by the treaties of and ; as for Holstein, if the king of Denmark was unable to deal with the rebels there, he himself would intervene as he had done in Hungary.
The threat was reinforced by the menace of the European situation. Austria and Prussia were on the verge of war. The sole hope of preventing Russia from throwing her sword into the scale of Austria lay in settling the Schleswig-Holstein question as Russia desired.
Frederick William's only alternative — an alliance with Louis Napoleon , who already dreamed of acquiring the Rhine frontier for France at the price of his aid in establishing German sea power by the cession of the duchies — was abhorrent to him.
A peace treaty was signed between Prussia and Denmark on July 2, Both parties reserved all their antecedent rights. Denmark was satisfied, since the treaty empowered the King to restore his authority in Holstein as Duke with or without the consent of the German Confederation.
Danish troops now marched in to coerce the refractory duchies; but while the fighting went on negotiations among the powers continued, and on August 2, , Great Britain, France, Russia and Norway-Sweden signed a protocol, to which Austria subsequently adhered, approving the principle of restoring the integrity of the Danish monarchy.
The provisional Schleswig government was deposed, as were the Lutheran general superintendents, who were even exiled from the Oldenburg-ruled monarchies in Their position remained vacant with Superintendent Christoph Carl Julius Asschenfeldt officiating per pro.
The Copenhagen government, which in May made an abortive attempt to come to an understanding with the inhabitants of the duchies by convening an assembly of notables at Flensburg , issued on December 6, , a project for the future organisation of the monarchy on the basis of the equality of its constituent states, with a common ministry; and on January 28, , a royal letter announced the institution of a unitary state which, while maintaining the fundamental constitution of Denmark, would increase the parliamentary powers of the estates of the two duchies.
This proclamation was approved by Prussia and Austria, and by the German Federal Assembly insofar as it affected Holstein and Lauenburg.
The question of the succession was the next approached. Only the question of the Augustenburg succession made an agreement between the powers impossible, and on March 31, , the duke of Augustenburg resigned his claim in return for a money payment.
Further adjustments followed. Another factor which doomed Danish interests, was that not only was the power of German culture rising, but so were conflicts with German States in the south, namely Prussia and Austria.
Schleswig and Holstein would, of course and inevitably, become the subject of a territorial dispute involving military encounters among the three states, Denmark, Prussia and Austria.
Danish government found itself nervous as it became expected that Frederik VII would leave no son, and that upon his death, under Salic law , the possible Crown Princess would have no actual legal right to Schleswig and Holstein of course that was debatable, as the dynasty itself had received Holstein by Christian I being son of the sister of last Schauenburg count of Holstein, but Salic Law was convenient to German nationalists in this case, furthermore Schleswig was a fief to the kings of Denmark with the Danish Kings Law, Kongeloven.
Ethnic-Danish citizens of Schleswig South Jutland panicked over the possibility of being separated from their mother country , agitated against the German element, and demanded that Denmark declare Schleswig an integral part of Denmark, which outraged German nationalists.
Holstein was part of the territory of the German Confederation , with which an annexation of whole Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark would have been incompatible.
This gave a good pretext to Prussia to engage in war with Denmark in order to seize Schleswig and Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists by 'liberating' Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.
After the renunciation by the emperor of Russia and others of their eventual rights, Charlotte, Landgravine of Hesse, sister of Christian VIII , and her son Prince Frederick transferred their rights to the latter's sister Louise, who in her turn transferred them to her husband Prince Christian of Glücksburg.
On May 8, , this arrangement received international sanction by the protocol signed in London by the five great powers and Norway and Sweden.
The protocol of London, while consecrating the principle of the integrity of Denmark, stipulated that the rights of the German Confederation in Holstein and Lauenburg should remain unaffected.
It was, in fact, a compromise, and left the fundamental issues unsettled. The German Federal Assembly had not been represented in London, and the terms of the protocol were regarded in German states as a humiliation.
As for the Danes, they were far from being satisfied with the settlement, which they approved only insofar as it gave them a basis for a more vigorous prosecution of their unionist schemes.
On February 15 and June 11, , Frederick VII, after consulting the estates, promulgated special constitutions for Schleswig and Holstein respectively, under which the provincial assemblies received certain very limited powers.
On July 26, , he published a common Danish constitution for the whole monarchy; it was little more unitary than a veiled absolutism. In the Lutheran church bodies of Schleswig and Holstein, until then led by general superintendents, until titled general provosts, were converted into Lutheran dioceses called Stift Schleswig Danish: Slesvig Stift and Stift Holstein Danish: Holsten Stift , each presided by a Lutheran bishop.
On October 2, , the common Danish constitution was superseded by a parliamentary constitution of a modified type.
The legality of this constitution was disputed by the two German great powers, on the ground that the estates of the duchies had not been consulted as promised in the royal letter of December 6, On February 11, , the federal assembly of the German Confederation refused to admit its validity so far as Holstein and Lauenburg were concerned.
In the early s the "Schleswig-Holstein Question" once more became the subject of lively international debate, but with the difference that support for the Danish position was in decline.
The Crimean War had crippled the power of Russia , and France was prepared to renounce support for Danish interests in the duchies in exchange for compensations to herself elsewhere.
Queen Victoria and her consort Prince Albert had sympathy for the German position, but it was tempered by British ministers who saw the growth of German sea power in the Baltic Sea as a danger to British naval supremacy, and consequently Great Britain sided with the Danes.
To that was added a grievance about tolls charged on shipping passing through the Danish Straits to pass between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.
To avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal , which could not be built as long as Denmark ruled Holstein. The secessionist movement continued throughout the s and s, as proponents of German unification increasingly expressed the wish to include two Danish-ruled provinces Holstein and Schleswig in an eventual 'Greater Germany'.
Holstein was completely German, while the situation in Schleswig was complex. It was linguistically mixed between German, Danish and North Frisian.
The population was predominantly of Danish ethnicity, but many of them had switched to the German language since the 17th century. German culture dominated in clergy and nobility, whereas Danish had a lower social status.
For centuries, when the rule of the King was absolute, these conditions had created few tensions. When ideas of democracy spread and national currents emerged from c.
The medieval Treaty of Ribe had proclaimed that Schleswig and Holstein were indivisible, albeit in another context.
As the events of threatened to politically divide the two duchies, Prussia was handed a good pretext to engage in war with Denmark to seize Schleswig-Holstein for itself, both by pleasing nationalists in "liberating" Germans from Danish rule, and by implementing the law of the German Confederation.
On July 29, , In response to the renewed Danish claim to Schleswig as integral Danish territory, the German Federal Assembly instructed by Bismarck threatened German federal intervention.
Even this concession violated the principle of the indissoluble union of the duchies, but the German Federal Assembly, fully occupied at home, determined to refrain from further action till the Danish parliament should make another effort to pass a law or budget affecting the whole kingdom without consulting the estates of the duchies.
In July this happened, and in the spring of the estates were once more at open odds with the Danish government.
The German Federal Assembly now prepared for armed intervention; but it was in no condition to carry out its threats, and Denmark decided, on the advice of Great Britain, to ignore it and open negotiations directly with Prussia and Austria as independent powers.
These demanded the restoration of the union between the duchies, a question beyond the competence of the Confederation. Denmark replied with a refusal to recognise the right of any foreign power to interfere in her relations with Schleswig; to which Austria, anxious to conciliate the smaller German princes, responded with a vigorous protest against Danish infringements of the compact of Lord John Russell now intervened, on behalf of Great Britain, with a proposal for a settlement of the whole question on the basis of the independence of the duchies under the Danish crown, with a decennial budget for common expenses to be agreed on by the four assemblies, and a supreme council of state consisting in relative proportion of Danes and Germans.
This was accepted by Russia and by the German great powers, and Denmark found herself isolated in Europe. The international situation, however, favoured a bold attitude, and she met the representations of the powers with a flat defiance.
The retention of Schleswig as an integral part of the monarchy was to Denmark a matter of life and death; the German Confederation had made the terms of the protocol of , defining the intimate relations between the duchies, the excuse for unwarrantable interference in the internal affairs of the Denmark.
On March 30, , as a result of this, a royal compact's proclamation was published at Copenhagen repudiating the compacts of , and, by defining the separate position of Holstein in the Danish monarchy, negativing once for all the German claims upon Schleswig.
As the heirless king Frederick VII grew older, Denmark's successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the king's future death.
Both duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark and shared a long mutual history, but their association with Denmark was extremely complex. Holstein was a member of the German Confederation.
Denmark, and Schleswig as it was a Danish fief , were outside the German Confederation. German nationalists claimed that the succession laws of the two duchies were different from the similar law in Denmark.
Danes, however, claimed that this only applied to Holstein, but that Schleswig was subject to the Danish law of succession. A further complication was a much-cited reference in the Treaty of Ribe stipulating that Schleswig and Holstein should "be together and forever unseparated".
As counter-evidence, and in favour of the Danish view, rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of and respectively, were produced.
According to the line of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg the future King Christian IX , the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic.
This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg Danish: Augustenborg who demanded, like in , the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein.
This happened at a particularly critical time as work on a new constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed with the draft awaiting his signature.
In the Duchy of Lauenburg the personal union with Denmark ended and her estates elected a new dynasty in The new so-called November Constitution would not annex Schleswig to Denmark directly, but instead create a joint parliament with the medieval title Rigsraadet to govern the joint affairs of both Denmark and Schleswig.
Both entities would maintain their individual parliaments as well. Lastly, there was the international question: the rival ambitions of the German powers involved, and beyond them the interests of other European states, notably that of the United Kingdom in preventing the rise of a German sea-power in the north.
German had been the language of government in Schleswig and Holstein while more-or-less independent Dukes ruled, and stayed so; and had been a language of government of the kingdom of Denmark in several eras.
Since the Lutheran Reformation , German had been dominant in church and schools, and Danish was the dominant language among the peasantry in Schleswig.
Low German was the language of all of Holstein. During the centuries following the Middle Ages , Low German had come to dominate in Southern Schleswig, which had originally been predominantly Danish-speaking.
The Danish language still dominated in Northern Schleswig. Around , German and Danish were spoken in approximately equal proportions throughout what is now Central Schleswig.
The German language had been slowly spreading at the expense of Danish in previous centuries: for example, Danish was still spoken on the peninsula of Schwansen around the last known use of Danish was in the villages near the Schlei , but then became extinct.
The language border in the nineteenth century conformed approximately to the current border between Denmark and Germany [ citation needed ].
It was clear that Danish dominance in Schleswig was vulnerable and weakening. Through its vigorous economic activity, the ethnically German area to the south expanded its geographic domain.
Linguistically Low German immigrants constantly arrived, and previously Danish-speaking families often came to find it convenient to change languages.
The Low German language, rather than Danish, had become typical of Holstein and much of south Schleswig. One solution, which afterwards had the support of Napoleon III , would have been to partition Schleswig on the lines of nationality, assigning the Danish part to Denmark, the German to Holstein.
This idea, which afterwards had supporters among both Danes and Germans, proved impracticable at the time owing to the intractable disposition of the majority on both sides.
German Schleswig-Holsteiners often cited a clause from the Treaty of Ribe of , stating that Schleswig and Holstein should "always be together and never partitioned or separated ".
Although this treaty played a minor role at the more formal level of the conflict, its proclamation "Forever Inseparable" Up ewig ungedeelt obtained proverbial status during the German nationalist awakening, both among those wishing an independent Schleswig-Holstein, and in the German unification movement in general.
In Denmark it was granted less significance, and the citing widely regarded to be out of context, as it could either hint at the duchies not being separated from each other, or their not being partitioned into smaller shares of inheritance.
This had happened many times anyway, leaving a confusing pattern of feudal units. Danes also brought forward rulings of a Danish clerical court and a German Emperor, of and respectively, stating that Schleswig rightfully belonged to Denmark, because it was a Danish fief and Holstein was a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, wanting Schleswig and Holstein to separate from each other.
The major powers appear to have given the Treaty of Ribe little notice in comparison to the ethnic conflict and worries about the European balance of power.
By Article XIX of the definitive Treaty of Vienna signed on October 30, , a period of six years was allowed during which the inhabitants of the duchies might opt for Danish nationality and transfer themselves and their goods to Denmark; and the rights pertaining to birth in the provinces were guaranteed to all, whether in the kingdom or the duchies, who had been entitled to those rights at the time of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty.
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